Using Leverage Professionally in CFD Trading

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Using Leverage Professionally in CFD Trading

Contracts for Difference (CFDs) are popular, especially in Europe, mainly due to leverage – the ability to deposit a small amount as collateral and borrow money from the broker in order to trade larger position sizes. Because some people think leverage is 100% and some generally exaggerate when using, we need to clarify a few things, so if you’re just getting started with CFD trading, you’ll know how to use it responsibly.

#1 Leverage in the context of risk management

“What is the most appropriate leverage level?” you may ask, thinking that there’s a certain threshold not to be exceeded. In reality, leverage on its own is irrelevant. You must think from a risk management point of view, meaning you must consider a few variables, not just the leverage. If you risk losing your entire account when the market moves in the opposite, then you clearly must take some actions.

You must adjust your position size and use risk diversification methods in order to not get wiped out by a single losing trade. Risk management is not just about leverage. It’s about position sizing, the risk per trade (how much in % terms you will lose if you’re wrong), your accuracy (meaning the percentage of winning trades), and last but not least, the risk/reward ratio. All these variables will help you calculate your risk of ruin or the probability of all your money.

#2 Reducing the leverage once your account grows

One of the common mistakes around retail traders is to increase their risk and exposure after a winning period. They get overconfident about their trading abilities and take higher risks, only to end will less money than they originally had. Trading is like a marathon and there’s no easy way out of it. Reducing the leverage as your account grows will show that you’re not only treating trading responsibly but will also show great emotional control.

We can’t suggest any particular level for the leverage. Some experts say that leverage higher than 1:10 means you’re gambling, and some consider 1:100 as the maximum level. As we’ve seen previously, you should put leverage into a greater context, not isolate it aside from other important risk parameters.

The bottom line is that risk management is a trading skill and leverage is one of the key components of it. If you can’t afford to invest a lot of money, then obviously you’ll have to use higher leverage at the beginning. Make sure, however, to stick to strict rules of risk management, so the risk won’t get out of control.

Using leverage like a professional

Professionally Using Leverage

One of the most important aspects of trading to grasp is the proper, and professional use of leverage. The use of leverage is arguably the most important aspect of risk management and proper risk management is the top priority of all professional traders.

Managing risk is going to be the single most important factor in your success or otherwise as a Forex trader. You must pay attention to this lesson, as this may be the one factor that is hindering your progress in the markets, as the improper use of leverage will make long term success almost impossible to achieve in the Forex market.

In contrast, the proper use of leverage will prevent you from destroying your account, preserve your capital as a trader, and make you an attractive trader for high net worth individuals to invest in.

Leverage is simply a way of trading with more money than you actually have in your account. Now using leverage can maximize gains, however it can also increase losses too. This is one of the reasons that the Financial Conduct Authority in the UK would like to reduce the amount of leverage accessible to traders.

Too many people have lost their entire trading accounts by the mis-use of leverage. In June 2020 it emerged that one broker had accidentally allowed a trader to open a $5 billion dollar position. The trader, who thought he was trading a demo account, was actually placing $1 billion worth of live orders for US and European equity futures.

The trader ended up with a profit of $10 million dollars, but his initial deposit with the broker had only been $20K. He was using leverage over 200 thousand times above his initial deposit. When you consider that the broker in question only made a profit of $9.6 million last year you can see the enormous risk that leverage can pose. So, the first step in using leverage is to understand exactly what it is.

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What is leverage?

The best way to understand leverage is to think of your trade size (how much you are trading with) vs your account size (how much you have in your account). So, for example, lets say that you have 10000 USD in your account.

If you buy 1 standard mini lot (0.10) – you are now considered to be trading unleveraged. This is because your trade size is equivalent to the amount of money in your account. Your position size is one mini lot, 10000USD, and your account size is 10000USD.

They are the same. In the pictures below you will see an order opened on an MT4 account . The trade size is 1 mini lot or 0.10. A position opened in this scenario would be for a trader not using any leverage with a 10000USD account.

If that trader, with the same account size of 10000 USD, then went on to open a second mini lot position of 0.10, then that trader would be using leverage of 2:1 This means that they are trading with double the trade size in relation to their account.

Their trade size would be 20000 USD , yet their account size is 10000USD. For each subsequent 0.1 trade position the trader opens, the higher amount of leverage they will be using in their account: 3:1, 4:1, 5:1 and so on.

How to use leverage professionally

Now just because you can use leverage it does not mean that you should. Professional traders, working for large institutional banks, brokers and funds use very low levels of leverage. In fact, as a general rule, for working out their trade size they will use unleveraged positions.

As explained above that will mean that their trade size matches their account size. So, a trader, operating a $1 million USD account would only use 10 standard lots as their normal, unleveraged position. At first, it may seem strange that a professional trader would not utilize these high levels of leverage.

So, let us move on to consider some of the key reasons why professional traders are so cautious in using leverage.

The benefits of using leverage professionally

Attract high net worth clients

The first benefit is that it allows a professional trader to attract and retain high net worth individuals and accounts. This is obvious when you think about it. Imagine that you have been entrusted with a $200 million account to trade with. Now, imagine, that through using leverage you have a losing trade that loses 10% of your account.

Now, let’s say that for the next two trades you lose a further 10% of your $200 million account. Let’s say those three losing trades happened in one week. Three losing trades in a row is not an unusual occurrence for any professional trader. It happens. Now, that trader would have to tell their employer and their client that they have lost over $40 million in one week. Enduring that kind of loss is an unbearable mental toll on both the trader and the client.

A professional trader who traded in this way would be removed from their post and clients of high net worth would not be prepared to risk so much of their money in this way. So, when you stop using leverage you are showing yourself to be a trustworthy trader who can manage risk in an acceptable way. Say, in the example above, that instead of risking 20% of their account , the trader had not used leverage and only risked 0.60% of their account per trade. Their total loss would only then have been 1.8%.

That is a an acceptable loss for three losing trades in a row, especially when the winning trades inevitably come along again. If you aspire to be a Forex trader, showing that you can manage accounts in a responsible way is crucial in attracting high net worth investors and will be a key factor in your success. If you aspire to become an online Forex trader, then managing your risk is a key factor you need to master.

Not Understanding CFD Leverage

Investors are attracted to CFDs because of the leveraged opportunities they offer, the low initial capital required to commence trading and the perceived ease of trading. However, most investors are oblivious to the risks of CFDs and lack a real understanding about the impact of leveraging and how it can devastate them and this misunderstanding is at the centre of CFD risk.

It’s a pity, but some people are attracted by exaggerated claims of the fortunes that can be made trading contracts for difference, and never learn how to use their accounts safely before they lose all their money. These are the friends who tell you that, overall, they just break even or are just slightly profitable over time. While many see large returns on individual trades, these are counterbalanced by losses on others and CFDs are unlikely to meet the investment needs and objectives of all retail investors.

CFDs can be defined as high-risk derivative instruments typically used by sophisticated traders to take geared, short-term positions in volatile markets. Leverage is the one big attraction, and risk, of trading contracts for differences. Trading shares on margin via CFDs requires less cash than the equivalent share purchase, but you are still exposed to the same absolute profit and loss. Many investors will tell you that trading a derivative like a contract or difference is risky and for the most part they are right. You only have to deposit a fraction of the value of the shares, forex or commodities that you buy. If you buy a share CFD, putting up 10 per cent of the value, you make a 100 per cent profit if the shares go up just 10 per cent. Similarly, if the shares fell 10 per cent, you would lose your whole starting amount. That’s 10 times the gain or loss compared with purchasing the stocks themselves. What most people miss is that you control the gearing or leverage which implies that you have control on the risk.

Education: The Power of Leverage

The capacity to make a gain from small percentage moves on a share, forex pair or index is because of one important thing; the power of leverage. The leverage level offered by the CFD broker magnifies the underlying movement of the share, which can be both positive and negative.

A key benefit of CFDs is the ability to trade securities on margin i.e. ability to gain exposure to a share, index or currency contract with a relativel small capital outlay. As opposed to having to pay for the full notional value of the CFD contract, investors can enter into positions with margins as low as 5 to 10%. This gives CFD traders a greater exposure than can be achieved by trading traditional, non-leveraged securities. However, it is important to note that even though a smaller initial deposit is needed to open the trade, you are still exposed to the price movement of the share CFD for the full notional worth of the position. In other words, despite a smaller commitment of capital, the CFD trader still acquires exposure to the impact of price swings for and against the full face-value of the trade.

Trading a CFD at 10% margin is equivalent to leveraging your exposure by 10 times, so a $10,000 deposit might allow you to open positions for up to $100,000. This in turn means that small fluctuations in price might result in much larger gains but this also works in reverse – losses can also be magnified if the price moves against your position. For instance when trading a CFD with a margin of 5%, a price rise of 2% of the underlying asset may result in gains of 20% – but if the price fell by 2%, this might lead to a loss of 20% of the amount you deposited to open the position.

First and most obvious it is important to gain an exhaustive understanding of all the facets of CFDs and the leverage effect they can offer via the margin feature – which cuts both ways; leveraging your trading capital in this way can either work for you or against you. The concept of leverage, or gearing, of your account is one that many people find difficult to understand, but it is essential to become educated before committing real funds. CFDs are essentially a leveraged bet on future changes in the market price.

Many CFD traders look only at the extra buying power that leverage makes available to them. They make the mistake of ignoring the fact that leverage is a double-edged sword. Why on earth would anyone want to trade financial products that could potentially wipe you out? Here is a naive perspective of a common investor without an understanding of leverage mechanics looking at this:

If Dave invested $10,000 of his savings into the stock market by buying shares and it went up 10% he’d make $1,000. Big deal. If Dave on the other hand put in $10,000 of his savings into CFDs and it went up 10% he’d make $10,000. Big deal!!

Leverage Effect

Perhaps the most familiar comparison that can be drawn is with buying a house with a mortgage. Most people understand that they can buy a house by putting 10% or 20% down, and borrowing the rest of the money on a mortgage which they pay back over a period of years. Until the housing bubbles of recent years, this has been considered an extremely safe and profitable way of using your money. You could buy a house worth $200,000 by paying only $20,000 as a deposit and making payments of $1000 per month. When the value of the house rose by 10%, you “made” $20,000 on your initial investment of $20,000.

The housing bubble represents what can happen when you trade CFDs. Leverage is a good thing if you are making good trades, but a terrible thing if you trade badly and do not know about money management. Newcomers to CFD trading sometimes took the same view as buyers of real estate used to, and believed that prices would never go down. As prices go down, and as CFDs go down, you can end up owing more than you have available. With houses, it’s known as being underwater, or upside down on your mortgage, and with CFDs you get wiped out.

That’s the simplest way to understand how leverage can work against you as well as for you. With houses, it was sometimes difficult to find a buyer as the value fell, and in any case people needed somewhere to live and didn’t want to sell. With CFDs, how much you lose is under your control, because in a losing position you can choose the moment that you sell. If you wish to keep your risk to a bare minimum you can trade CFDs with no leverage and treat your account like a share dealing account. So with $20,000 cash in your trading account, you would take positions not exceeding $20,000.

Because of the way leverage works, CFD traders need fully to understand the risks and costs involved. Gains and losses are based on the full contract value once the trade is closed. This means that on the positive side, profits can be significantly greater than the initial deposit outlay required to setup the trade. On the negative side, the loss can also be considerably larger than the original cash outlaid when entering the trade.

In practice there are two things that govern and control your losses. One is the price, less than your entry price that you decide will tell you your trading idea didn’t work. The other is the amount that you put into the trade. By looking at the two of these together, you can see how much money you could lose. To trade safely, you should set a limit that you are prepared to lose on a trade, and many traders set this at 2%. You can then work backwards to see what the most is that you should put in a particular trade.

If you aren’t comfortable with the level of leverage you are utilising on a trade, then simply cut back. Some CFD providers like IG Markets offer mini contracts on certain markets, so if you feel anxious about what effect the movement of one point against your position will have on your running profit or loss, then you an simply cut back the size of the trade. As David Jones of IG Markets puts it ‘It is difficult enough to get market direction right without getting stressed by every small move in the market’.

There is nothing wrong with CFDs – the problem is with the way investors use them. For such a turbocharged product you really need to know what you are doing but instead some people are clicking past all those terms and conditions without reading a word – Marcus Padley, Patersons Securities

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